I was in the Army for over 10 years, but most of the time I was stationed where there were no theme parks unfortunately, so my list is sadly very short.
1) Coney Island including the now defunct Steeplechase park (if that can be considered a theme park)
2) Busch Gardens Williamsburg
3) Kings Dominion in Virginia
Non theme Park types of amusement parks:
Rye Beach, NY
Riverside Amusement Park (later to become Six Flags New England)
palisades amusement park in New Jersey, now defunct
Rockaways' Playland closed in 1985
Seabreeze Amusement Park in Rochester NY
One place I did get to go eventhough it wasn't an amusement park was the Space Needle in Seattle, and the view from the restaurant (that revolves at the rate of 1 revolution per hour) was simply amazing. And, since I'm originally from NYC, I did go to the 1965 World's Fair.